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Second Boer War
The Second Boer War was a conflict between the United Kingdom and the founders of the independent republics of Orange Free State and South Africa, in northeastern South Africa. The war, which lasted from October 11, 1899 to May 31, 1902, began with the attempt of the British Crown to join the two republics, which were lands rich on diamonds, gold and iron. The Boers, who occupied the region since 1830, fought to preserve their independence. The British saw in this nationalism a threat to the dominance of the United Kingdom in South Africa.
The second Boer War was one of the first types of conflict including machine guns, shrapnel and observation balloons which were all widely used in the First World War. At first, the Boers caused a great impact on the British Empire; they started the war invading the Cape Colony, in addition, Boers besieged major cities and annexed British territories. But in 1902, the British counteroffensive developed. The British superiority in men and weapons defeated the Boers.
British troops devastated and burned any type of property during the war. The captured Boers (men, women and children) were displaced to concentration camps, where nearly 20,000 people died. News of the inhuman treatment by the British to the Boers prisoners intensified the negative image of the United Kingdom to the international community.
With the Peace of Vereeniging, signed on May 31, 1902, the republics were incorporated into the British Empire and in 1910 joined the Cape and Natal colonies to form the Union of South Africa.