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Trafalgar Square is a square in central London (UK), built to commemorate the Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805) in which the British navy defeated the French and Spanish near Cape Trafalgar, nowadays part of Cadiz, Spain. The original name of the square was William IV Square, but George Ledwell Taylor suggested changing the name.
In 1820, King George IV commissioned John Nash urbanization of the area. The current architecture of the square is due to Charles Barry and was completed in 1845. The square contains a large central area with roadways on three sides and a terrace to the north. Nelson’s Column is in the center of the square, bordered by fountains designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens in 1937 and guarded by four monumental bronze lions sculpted by Sir Edwin Landseer. The lions were made of bronze melted down from the cannons aboard French and Spanish ships that had taken part in the battle. The column is topped by a statue of Horatio Nelson, the vice admiral who commanded the British Fleet at Trafalgar.
The square is usual place of political demonstrations, and they generally take place in the site on which Nelson’s Column stands. It is also used for New Year Events, Christmas ceremonies, people also gather in this square to watch on giant video screens international participation of English teams on sport events, and is used for sporting victory parades as well. It has been also used for many TV productions and films. In May 2007, the square was covered with 2,000 square meters of grass for two days as part of a campaign by the authorities in London to promote “green spaces” in the city. Every year on the anniversary of the Battle of Trafalgar, 21 October, the Navy Cadet Corps held a parade in honor of Admiral Nelson and the British victory over the fleets of Spain and France at Trafalgar.